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Guide to Common Congenital Heart Lesions
and Surgeries

Frequently Encountered Congenital Heart Defects
& Surgical and Interventional Treatment Options

Atrial Septal Defect (ASD)
An ASD is a hole within the membrane that normally separates the left and right atrial chambers of the heart (the atrial septum). A defect in the atrial septum permits blood to communicate between the left and right sides of the heart. This results in an increased amount of blood that passes through and must be handled by the right side of the heart and the lungs. More...

Ventricular septal defect (VSD)Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD)
A VSD is a hole within the wall of heart muscle tissue that normally separates the left and right ventricles. Blood that enters the ventricles normally does not communicate between the 2 sides. More...

Atrioventricular Canal Defect (AVCD)
An AVCD is a defect involving a hole in the wall between the atria (atrial septum), a hole in the wall between the ventricles (ventricular septum), and varying degrees of involvement of the heart valves that separate the atria from the ventricles (the mitral and tricuspid valve). More...

Tetralogy of Fallot
Tetralogy of Fallot is the most common cyanotic heart lesion and accounts for a large percentage of adult congenital heart disease patients seen today thanks to tremendous advances in the surgical management of the defect over the last several decades. The native defect involves the abnormal development of the ventricular septum leading to an abnormal alignment of parts of the septum such that a large ventricular septal defect exists. More...

Fontan Conversion
Various forms of the Fontan procedure have been used in the past. Some Fontan patients develop complications including arrhythmias, blood clots, and increased volume burden on the single ventricle. A Fontan conversion procedure may be recommended to address these problems for patients with certain forms of the Fontan connection. More...

Ross Procedure
The Ross procedure is a surgical procedure used to address obstructions to blood flow from the left ventricle to the aorta and/or functional problems with the aortic valve leading to significant valvar obstruction or leakage. Patients who undergo this surgery must have a well functioning pulmonary valve. More...

Valve Replacements
A variety of congenital and acquired heart defects can result in dysfunction of the heart valves. These valves may be malformed or undergo progressive changes with time that result in improper opening and closing, leading to obstruction and/or leakage of blood flow. Damaged heart valves can now be replaced with low risk and good postoperative results. More...

Atrial Switch, Arterial Switch, and Transposition of the Great Arteries
Transposition of the great arteries is a congenital heart lesion characterized by a flip in the relationship of the great arteries, the aorta and pulmonary artery, to the right and left ventricles. The typical form of transposition consists of an essentially normal arrangement of the cardiac chambers. More...

Aortic Diseases - Coarctation of the Aorta, Aortic Dilation, and Aortic Dissection
Defects in the aorta are frequently seen in patients with congenital heart disease. These defects may be part of the original heart defect or may develop secondarily after surgical interventions. In addition, there are several forms of genetic diseases involving the formation of tissues important to providing structural integrity and elasticity to the blood vessels that can result in the development of aortic dilation and dissection. More...

Pacemakers and Implantable Defibrillators (ICD)
Patients with congenital heart disease frequently experience arrhythmias or abnormalities in heart rhythm. Certain arrhythmias are characterized by a loss of the usual functions of the heart's electrical conduction system (sinus node and/or AV node dysfunction, heart block). Other arrhythmias result from the development of abnormal electrical activity within the atria or ventricles. More...





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Common Congenital Heart Lesions and Surgeries
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